Karachi, English Karachi [kε ra ː t ʃ ɪ ], largest city in Pakistan, capital of the province of Sind, the Arabian Sea on the western edge of the Indus delta, according to official estimate (2017) 14.9 million residents.
Karachi is characterized by rapid population growth (1880: 58,000, 1920: 216,000, 1951: 1.1 million, 1961: 1.9 million, 1972: 3.5 million, 1981: 5.2 million. Resident). Due to its economic strength, Karachi is a magnet for Pakistanis from all parts of the country. After the partition of British India (1947), Indian Muslims, referred to as Mohajirs (Arabic for “refugees”) streamed into the city; after the declaration of independence from Bangladesh (1971), Indian Muslims (Biharis) once again came. In addition to the Mohajirs, the immigrant Pashtuns form a large minority.
According to bridgat, Karachi is the seat of the Catholic archbishopric; University of Karachi (founded in 1951), TU (was a college from 1922–77), Aga Khan University (founded in 1983), two technical and one medical schools, Goethe Institute, libraries, national museum, art gallery, aquarium. Karachi is the commercial, banking and industrial center of Pakistan. Most of Pakistan’s foreign trade and transit traffic for Afghanistan is handled through its port. To relieve the port of Karachi, the coal and ore port of Port Mohammad Bin Qasim was opened in the southeast of Karachi in 1980; There is also a modern shipyard for new ships and two dry docks. Every year the Mecca pilgrims have a significant share in passenger ship traffic. The industry includes the production or processing of food, Fish oil and meal, soap, textiles, hosiery, carpets, stockings, leather, rubber and plastic goods, glass, cement, electrical goods, rolling mill products, railway wagons, electric and diesel motors and sewing machines, as well as car assembly plants, large refineries and steel works; Nuclear power plant. Karachi is a hub for international air traffic. – The situation in the southern industrial lowlands, which is characterized by drought, poses major problems for the water supply in the metropolis. Extensive slums both in the inner city area and on the outskirts, where mud hut settlements stretch up the hills, form a sharp contrast to villa suburbs.
The 35 m high, marble-built Quaid-e-Azam mausoleum (1960–70) was built for the founder of Pakistan, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, and its dome is visible from afar. In the Defense Housing Society, a modern residential area, is the Masjid-e-Tobo (1966–69), a pillarless mosque whose cantilever dome spans the huge prayer room. On the road to Hyderabad is the Chaukandi burial ground with step-shaped sandstone tombs from the 16th to 18th centuries. Century; Artful abstract patterns, flower and equestrian motifs are carved into the stone slabs, some of which are well preserved.
In Karachi, which was a small fishing village at the beginning of the 18th century, a fort was built in 1795. Captured by the British in 1839, its importance as a seaport grew rapidly (especially since the Suez Canal opened in 1869). In 1936, Karachi became the provincial capital of Sind, and from 1947–59 it was the capital of Pakistan.
Faisalabad, until 1979 Lyallpur [ la ɪ əlp ʊ ə], city in Punjab province, Pakistan, in Mesopotamia of Chenab and Ravi, (2017) 3.2 million residents (1951: 179 000, 1961 425 000, 1972: 822,000 residents).
Catholic bishopric; Agricultural University; Fertilizer, chemical fiber, pharmaceutical, food and textile industries.
Founded in 1890.
Rawalpindi [ra ː wəl p ɪ nd ɪ ], city in Punjab province, Pakistan, on the Potwarplateau, (2017) 2 million residents.
Today Rawalpindi forms a twin city with the capital Islamabad. It is the headquarters of the Pakistani military, Catholic bishopric, seat of a technical college; Location of locomotive works, metalworking, textile, food, chemical industries and an oil refinery.
1959-69 Rawalpindi was the capital of Pakistan. About 30 km away are the fields of ruins of Taxila.
Gujranwala [g ʊ d ʒ rənw ɑ ː lə], city in Punjab province, Pakistan, the Punjab east of the center Chenab, (2017) 2 million residents.
Metal processing, ceramic, textile, electrical engineering industries.